Friday, August 11, 2006

Internet Governance in Pakistan

Some quick facts before we begin:

  1. Government of Pakistan and all its IT and Telecom departments are typically the last one to understand any new concept specially if it is related to new age communication and Internet. [There are smart guys in these ranks, no doubt, but I am talking about the outcomes, such as legislations and 'instructions' that come out of these corridors - horribly clueless!]
  2. The industry - whether it is Telecom in general, cellular sphere or even plain Internet Service Providers - has not been able to produce world class trade-associations that can help the Government in new-age matters that are beyond its quick comprehension. All that we see are plain, old trade unions void of any professional thrust and effective technical acumen.
  3. Pakistan, like the rest of the South Asian countries, is facing an upsurge in Telecommunications and given its socio-economics problems and the potential of ICT to prove helpful here, it needs to make sure that nothing stands between itself and scalability of Telecommunication and Internet.

Domain Names, IP Addresses, Spam, Identity-theft etc might be 'the issue of 0.1%' in Pakistan but that 0.1% might be meaning a lot in terms of influence to the rest of the country. Hence, dealing with these issues early on is a sensible course. We have some problems with all of these areas and they need to be fixed - sooner or later. The earlier, the better.

The .pk ccTLD (country code top level directory) has been historically managed by a group of ex-pat Pakistanis. In the very early days, it used to be Imran. Then, the stewardship went to Ashar Nisar who has steadily been there at PKNIC for a long time now. PKNIC has been working satisfactorily (from an end customer's perspective) providing reliable services. However, we have some problems:

  1. PKNIC is a misnomer. If you go by the convention, XYZNICs are typical bodies that manage IP addresses and other common, collective resources for a given country or economy. PKNIC has been a 'domain registration' shop so far. It does not do any of the other essential Internet resources (such as IP address, AS Numbers etc)
  2. Its 'satisfactory working' aside, PKNIC remains an 'elusive' body. You cannot 'walk' to the PKNIC office and meet some human representative there. In a booming Internet and Telecommunication market such as that of Pakistan, would you imagine that PKNIC does not have a physical presence in the commercial capital of Pakistan - Karachi? A perfectly logical answer to this objection might be the financial state of the registry and the subsequent inability to have multiple physical offices in Pakistan but hold on - answer this question: Could it be the traditional working style of PKNIC that has been limiting the growth of the services that it provides?
  3. PKNIC's Pakistan office does not even has a telephone number. Just one ghostly fax number that has been sitting there ever since we grew up! The website of PKNIC remains poorly designed in terms of user-interface and usability. From 1996 to 2006, I can only remember 2 or 3 site design changes (I might be grossly wrong here). True, as long as the services are being rendered, this does not make any difference but just try to see the point I am trying to make here - lack of symptoms life!
  4. Because any NIC is so important to any economy in this digital age, it needs to be run democratically, with useful participation from the relavent masses. Once again, PKNIC has tried hard to 'dress up democratically' by having a 'PKNIC Advisory Group' membership to which is open to all. However, what is the exact use (if any) of this group except that it happens to receive a few policy level updates once in a blue moon. Whether this group has the power to make new changes or undo previous once is certainly unclear.

At the peril of being misunderstood as a clueless PKNIC critic, here is what I would suggest:

  1. PKNIC needs to be a vibrant body - something you can feel and touch right here in Pakistan. The servers can happily sit in the bandwidth rich North America but we need to have the rest of the things in Pakistan. At least I am ready to given life-long ownership/stewardship of this national asset to the current organizers but please bring it here. Imran and Ashar Nisar are national assets for us and they have been doing great work for all of us but God forbids, if a natural calamity hit, do we have a transparent succession planning and a DRP?
  2. PKNIC needs to enhance its role - not just should it be handling domain names but it should be enhanced to the level of a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) or a National Internet Registry (NIR) so that it can manage IPv4 and IPv6 addresses for Pakistan. Just to give you an idea, the ~200 odd ISPs licensed in Pakistan pay ~ $200,000 per year to APNIC for a limited amount of services.
  3. By breathing in a 'local life' into PKNIC - we can even have roaming PKNIC ambassadors in each city where there cannot be a full fledged office - we can double or even quadruple domain name registration and usage in the .pk ccTLD. This would bring down the cost per domain and further fuel the usage and consumption.
  4. PKNIC can be an excellent forum of discussing and solving other related issues such as Internet traffic exchanges between local networks, policies related to SPAM, content filtering, privacy and identity crisis etc and be the social forum of choice for handling Internet age issues in Pakistan
Now, getting back to the start of this post, here is the problem statement:
  • Government has been traditionally clueless on the new-age stuff (read Internet)
  • PKNIC guys did a great job in managing the .pk ccTLD at a time when both public and governmental awareness of the subject was next to nothing
  • Pakistan is at a take-off state in terms of IT and Telecommunication and will needs lots of shared Internet resources such as domain name space, IP address space, IPv6 and general network
  • Current PKNIC set up is working satisfactorily but there is a huge potential that remains to be unlocked in terms of possibilities. And as the needs rise, these unlocked potentials will become unaddressed pains
  • Current PKNIC set up needs to be 'revived' in terms of local presence and participation while upholding and acknowledging the services and contribution the current PKNIC leadership has provided
  • In case we cannot get PKNIC revived in the above sense, an ugly, loose-loose war is immanent where a late-awakening PTA and other governmental wings will try to create a parallel body with a split support of local industry that might support them due to the current participation void that they feel with PKNIC.
I invite your comments here to take this issue further.

80 Comments:

At 2:23 PM, Blogger Iqtidar said...

Yep, these Internet conditions haunt most of the people like us who live and earn their life on the Internet. I am an Internet developer for ages now and I dont seem to see good progress or awareness in this sector through the years.

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At 2:36 AM, Anonymous Sajjad said...

Salam. Good to finally find your blog. I'm linking to it.

I think funding is the least of PKNIC's issues. They must have made a killing from all the .pk registrations (I alone have at least 10 domains). Though the registration process is a lot better for .pk domains, they still have a long way to go.

Agreed that PKNIC should play a more active role. It is a bit disturbing that the only interface between them and us is a web one, and not a good one at that. They definitely need to be more visible.

 
At 1:50 AM, Blogger Teeth Maestro said...

TEE EMM you have raised an important perspective to which many Pakistanis are simply unaware off. I have been interacting with PKNIC for sometime (domain registration) but always assumed it was a small shop office running the affairs little did I know of the ghost fax number etc etc. All credit to the guys working hard keeping this institution up and running.

Since you are very much involved in the thinking process of Internet Governance in Pakistan maybe you can shed light on the attempt to censor the Internet. Would love to hear your analysis and if possible propose and amicable solution with which the two sides (PTA & The Public) can co-exist.

Would love to have you interacting on our Society Against Internet Censorship in Pakistan.

 
At 9:48 AM, Anonymous Shirazi said...

Hard hitting post, but who listen in this din.

 
At 3:18 AM, Anonymous Zaeem Arshad said...

As for PKNIC acting in an RIR, that's not possible as this doesn't happen anymore. JPNIC and others existed before APNIC and LACNIC came into existence and hence they are there. Otherwise, I don't see APNIC giving PKNIC this particular status.

 
At 9:48 AM, Blogger PakSys said...

Glad to see that our fellows, at least now, have realised the importance of such issues and are raising these kind of questions. Good Job, Mr. Mustafa! One of my friends, Badar, drew my attention to this blog and happy to read it. A few things as being an CEO of PakSys Software, PakHost and PAKNIC (the only ICANN accredited domain Registrar in Pakistan (http://icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html):

1. We (PAKNIC/PakSys) have been trying our best to draw Government of Pakistan and ICANN attention to these issues especially about the future of ccTLD .PK for the last almost 2-3 years. I have personally raised such issues to Federal Secretary (IT), Members and Directors of Board (IT), other Federal Secretaries and last year Internet Governance meeting at Geneva. So far I have been encouraged from all corners with promising support. But we need action rather than just empty words and promises.

2. Role of PKNIC and Internet Governance are two separate things. Government may not be interested to take over PKNIC due to a several reasons but they can for sure do something to help the nation.

3. Role of Imarn in ccTLD is equal to nothing except that he fought for imarn.pk in 1997 (I guess) and he got it. Mr. Ashar Nisar has been ccTLD Manager since the very first day when he graduated from Universirty of Southern California (Good luck for him as there was no opposition or competition in 80s)

4. Mr. Ashar Nisar has been doing a tremendous job for keeping DNS servvers up but just as a part-time (that is what I see) but now is the time to move on to next level, either do it or let other country fellows to do it.

5. I have been constantly requesting a face to face meeting with Mr. Ashar Nisar in any part of the world and at any time but no luck yet. First he said he is not availabel until 2nd quarter of 2007 and now it looks like he is even running from 2007 as well. I offered him that I can travel to his house in CA from where he is running PKNIC and am waiting for the response.

6. PAKNIC being the first and only ICANN accredited domain registrar, we have been refused to give PAKNIC.COM.PK or PAKNIC.NET.PK or PAKNIC.PK or any .PK domain name, even that we hold trademark in Pakistan.

7. The PKNIC "Advisory Group" and label of "Re-delagation" to other Pakistani Companies are just a trick to play with ICANN terminology. DNS Re-delegation in ICANN terms has a specific meaning which is not true in PKNIC SRS program. SRS is just a commercial reselling program.

8. I have seen and I have proof how PKNIC terms and conditions are illegitimately fabricated and changed time after time just to punish some people or to revoke some domain names. Thanks to Google caching which can prove different versions of PKNIC "terms and conditions" just to revoke domain names without presenting to so-called "Advisory Group" which is just for political purpose.

Making a long story short, it is the time and there is utmost need to make some drastic changes for the benefit of nation and country ccTLD. If we keep on thinking and keep on delaying, our nation will remain backward in the darks, people and government will remain ignorant, and some folks will keep on washing their hands in sunshine. It is time for all of us "educated Pakistani class" to raise our voice and make authorities to hear of it.

Good luck to all of us!

 
At 9:59 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

PAKNIC does not have control for .PK domains, if this is true, then how PAKNIC can offer API code and .PK domain whois services free of charge at http://whois.net.pk?

 
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At 11:32 AM, Anonymous umair said...

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At 3:30 AM, Anonymous Farooq said...

What a great posting on the topic. You also correctly reported the history of email in Pakistan which was started by Imran Anwar. Let's not ignore that role of a fellow Pakistani in the establishment of internet, email and .PK

Those who remember the early days of the internet will recall that even in the USA many Pakistanis online would communicate with newsgroups like soc.culture.pakistan and the development of internet email services business by Imran was well reported back then. He and his friends also started Pakistan News Service that was also a great service based on email and internet.

My family in Lahore was among the first people to sign up with his email service which used to be called Imran net. It was in Gulberg Lahore and there were people who worked there who would go to people's homes to set up their computers for email access.

It was the first and back then the only internet service provider in Pakistan. It was dial up and sometimes it could take a very long wait to get emails from America to Pakistan but it worked. Later many other companies got into the business and the market grew even faster with live net services and today many high speed options are available.

Ashar I think was Imran's neighbor and they were both at UET Lahore. Interesting fact is that Ashar Nisar is the actual creator of a nasty computer virus for PCs which Brain computer shop owners spread widely so it became known as the Brain virus but Ashar is the person who created and spread that first known form of malicious code for PCs.

Ashar and Imran were co-owners of the .PK domain. Later they had a falling out or something because Imran's name "disappeared" from the CO-OWNER of .PK ccTLD records and only Ashar's name remained.

High praise to you for a great posting and for raising both the history and especially the future issues for .PK/Pakistan which still lags far behind many other countries.

 
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